Main Article Content
Monitoring studies of plant objects provide an array of data on the characteristics of growth, phenology, the development of generative organs, the nature of fruiting, seed quality, resistance to stress factors, i.e. by indicators that are in a functional relationship with each other and allow us to judge the degree of ecological plasticity of plants. To justify the prospects of species of the genus Juniperus, further forecasting the level of adaptability of species outside the natural range, reliable and relevant information on the success of adaptation of introducers in urbanized areas of low-forest regions is necessary.
The purpose of the research is to justify the prospects of using species of the genus Juniperus based on the study of their biological potential under conditions of introduction.
The objects of research were species of the genus Juniperus: J. virginiana L., J. sabina L., J. communis L. and their forms introduced in dendrological collections of the Volgograd region: Federal Research Center for Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cadastre No. 34: 34: 000000: 122, 34 : 34: 060061: 10 and the Lower Volga tree breeding station, No. 34: 36: 0000: 14: 0178.
The survey was conducted by the route method. The study of seasonal rhythms of the introduction of introducers was carried out by the method of phenological observations. The characteristics of decorativeness, growth and development of three species of Juniperus L. (J. sabina L., J. virginiana L., J. communis L.) in chestnut soils of the Volgograd region, the assessment of reproductive ability, especially the reproduction of various species in culture were revealed according to the methods of the Federal Scientific Center of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Semenyutina et al., 2014). To determine the nature of the fruiting of the objects of study, the method of determining the mass of 1000 seeds was used; weighing was performed on a MASSA-K brand balance (GOST 13056.4-67, 1968). For mathematical data processing, standard algorithms were used: arithmetic mean with absolute and relative errors; coefficient of variation to assess the characteristics of reproductive processes; significance of differences between individual indicators.
The characteristics of decorativeness, growth and development of three species of Juniperus L. (J. sabina L., J. virginiana L., J. communis L.) in chestnut soils of the Volgograd region are described. An assessment of reproductive ability is given, the features of reproduction of various species in culture are revealed.
According to the complex of the studied quantitative indicators of the seed material, it was found that the seeds of the virgin juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.) (10 g) are almost half as much as the weight of the ordinary seeds; the mass of the seeds of Cossack juniper (Juniperus sabina L.) (24 g) is more than the mass of the seeds of juniper ordinary and a half times and almost two and a half times more than the juniper Virginia in comparison with the standard data for ordinary juniper (weight 1000 pcs. total 16 g) (Kolesnikov, 1974).
A study of the fruiting nature of virgin juniper (J. virginiana) showed that 10.0 grams of conifer berries contain an average of 156 berries and 270 pcs of seeds, the yield of pure seeds is 15.84% of the fruit weight. 10.0 grams of cone berry of Cossack juniper (J. sabina) contains an average of 86 berries and 170 pcs of seeds, the yield of pure seeds is 20.09% of the fruit weight.
It has been established that for landscaping urban areas of the Volgograd region, Juniperus virginiana is recommended to be used in alley stands, in clean groups and as a second tier in the stands Betula, Robinia, Pseudotsuga, Larix.
Juniperus sabina is most valuable for decorating and strengthening slopes. In gardens and public parks, its use is limited, and when planting children's institutions, it is excluded (needles and fruits are poisonous) (Ulyanov, 2016).
In the Volgograd region, Juniperus communis and its forms can be used on poor sandy soils in group plantings, at the edges and in molded hedges. Pyramidal forms are suitable on the partners, dwarf forms - for the design of rocky areas. A form with a golden color in small groups on the lawn (Ulyanov, 2016).
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