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Conducting research on the impact of stress factors on the reproductive capacity of economically important woody plants is relevant for arid regions of the Russian Federation, in connection with the implementation of activities under the national projects "Science" and "Ecology". Mechanisms of adaptation of biological systems to the impact of stress factors are determined by the limits of plant resistance, reveal the nature of their integrity and preservation.
The objects of research are representatives of the Rosaceae family (Amelanchier, Amygdalus, Aronia, Armeniaca, Chaenomeles, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Gydonia, Malus, Rosa, Sorbus, Spiraea, etc.) growing in the collections of the Federal research CENTER of Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Volgograd, Samara region, Altai territory), include types of multi-purpose use (Le-someliorative, decorative, medicinal, food, etc.).
The climate is characterized by a small amount of annual precipitation (270-395 mm), high summer precipitation (+40-43°C) and low winter (- 35-50°C) air temperatures, thawing in winter, low snow cover.
Observation of the behavior of tree introducers was evaluated by the degree of growth, development,and reproduction. We used methods for determining the limits of tolerance under the influence of stress factors based on the s230kit conductometer, developed by Dualex Scientific.
To determine the effect of environmental factors on flowering, fruiting and Seminole-tion of the studied representatives of generic systems in the family Rosaceae was carried out according to guidelines developed by the Federal scientific center for Agroecology Russian Academy of Sciences.
In the cluster collections of the Federal CENTER for Agroecology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (arboretums: Volgograd, Ka-myshinsky, Povolzhsky, Kulundinsky) 33.2% of tree species with a generative index of 0.65-0.79 were identified. This group includes plants with a wide ecological range of growth (polymorphic generic complexes). Along with a high level of eco-logical plasticity to stress factors, the colloid-osmotic properties of proto-plasma (1.70-2.05) showed intensive fruiting, high rates of fruit binding (64-91%), the development of large fruits and seeds, and good seed quality.
Seeds of high quality are produced by representatives of Cydonia (80 ... 95), Spiraea (85...93), Prunus (86...97), Aronia (88...95), Padus (89...96), Pyrus (89...99), Amygdalus (90...100), Cerasus (93...99), Chaenomeles (95...99), Physocarpus (95...100), Armeniaca (99...100). The variety of seed quality is characterized by the following species of genera in this family: Crataegus (48 ... 91), Sorbus (59...88), Amelanchier (60...90), Malus (68...90), and Aflatunia ulmifolia (31...50).
The ecological specificity of the species associated with the range of their origin and associated with a complex process of adaptive variability has been established. Bioecological parameters of seed production and generative capacity of trees and shrubs for their effective continuous use in nursery and forest reclamation were identified.
As a result of research, a theoretical basis for seed science has been developed, which is based on obtaining an adaptive generation of plants. New knowledge has been obtained on the limits of ecological tolerance of tree species to stress factors.
Polymorphic generic complexes of shrubs are recommended to form stable forest-reclamation complexes and improve the bio-resources of degraded landscapes. Based on the analysis of climatic characteristics that play a decisive role in the success of introduction, species with a wide ecological range, as multi-purpose plants, are promising for plantings in arid regions.
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