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Small river valleys are an important element of the landscape and ecological framework of the city of Volgograd. Recently, river valleys have undergone a strong anthropogenic transformation. The Sukhaya Mechetka is a right tributary of the Volga river. It originates in the gorodishchensky district of the Volgograd region and has a total length of 18.5 km. currently, the river has no permanent watercourse and is one of the most polluted small rivers of the Volgograd agglomeration. Natural tree plantations in the river valley are almost completely absent.
In arid climate, the valleys of small rivers are the only place where it is possible to form natural forests and artificial plantations of forest Park type that do not require regular irrigation. Conservation and restoration of floodplain and bayrach forests will significantly increase the sanitary, recreational and aesthetic value of green spaces in the valleys of small rivers in the Volgograd agglomeration.
The purpose of the research is to assess the current state and develop mechanisms for preserving, restoring and enriching tree plantations in the Sukhaya Mechetka river valley.
The object of research - made up of dendrites river valley Dry Mechetka within the boundaries of Gorodischenskogo district of the Volgograd region and the traktorozavodskoy district court of Volgograd from the Third Longitudinal highway to the mouth of the river between microdistrict Spartanovka and the village of HPP.
As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the vegetation cover of the Dry Mechetka river valley is a network of scattered intrazonal highly degraded bayrach and floodplain plant communities. Typical bairachny forest plantations are found only on the slopes of the valley in the middle reaches of the river. Introduced and invasive plant species predominate in the woodlands of the floodplain.
The lowest anthropogenic load on vegetation within the study area is observed on the right slope of the valley in the middle reaches of the river. In the upper part of the slope, typical tipchak-Kovyl associations and bayrachny plantings have been preserved.
The vegetation cover of the floodplain terrace has undergone a complete anthropogenic transformation. In the upper part, near the Third longitudinal highway, the floodplain is in long-term flooding, which led to the death of a large wood mass with the participation of elm species Ulmus sp.
Downstream, the Dry Mechetka is represented by a cascade of ponds, between which the river has no channel. Siltation of the soil, rise and high mineralization of groundwater led to complete domination of the vegetation cover of southern Phragmites australis And narrow-leaved Loch Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
In the lower reaches of the former suburban areas, a plant community with a specific floral composition has formed, the basis of which is the remains of fruit and berry plantations. As a result of the conducted research, it was found that many introduced species formed stable self-renewing populations, and some of them (Hippophae rhamnoides L.)are potentially invasive and require further observations of their settlement.
The results of the research made it possible to identify a single area in The dry Mechetka floodplain with a small natural forest of alder glutinosa Alnus (L.) Gaertn. with an area of 0.6 ha. On the territory of the alder river valley is subject to environmental transformation. The floral composition of tree stands is represented by local native plant species.
Reconstruction of floodplain tree plantations is proposed to begin with the restoration of alders and willows, which have a pronounced water-regulating and channel-forming function. To restore natural biodiversity in the floodplain part of the river, it is necessary to use local natural species: ash Willow Salix cinerea L. and three-staminate Willow Salix triandra L., white Willow Salix alba L., black poplar Populus nigra L., white poplar Populus alba L. and trembling poplar Populus tremula L. In the lower terraces above the floodplain, it is possible to plant petiolate Oak Quercus robur L., common Ash Fraxinus excelsior L., and early Apple Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.,. Of warty Euonymus Euonymus verrucosus Scop., Jouster laxative Rhamnus cathartica L., Prunus spinosa L.. On the upper terraces and on the slopes of the beams should be planted: hawthorn dubious Crataegus ambigua C. A. Mey. ex A. K. Becker, Hawthorn odnopestichny Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Tartar maple Acer tataricum L., dog Rose Rosa canina L., Almond low Amygdalus nana L., Spiraea hypericifolia L., Chingil silver Halimodendron halodendron Pall. etc.
When carrying out environmental rehabilitation, first of all, it is necessary to ensure the safety of natural plant complexes. The design and construction of anti-erosion forest protection stands on the upper terraces of the river valley should be carried out taking into account the invasive activity of the species used in order to prevent their active introduction into natural bayrach communities.
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